Gateway on Pesticide Hazards and Safe Pest Management
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- Fact Sheet: 2-4-D.pdf
- Product Names:
- Chemical Class: Phenoxy herbicide
- Uses: Registered for field, fruit, and vegetable crops, turf, lawns, rights-of-way, aquatic sites, forestry applications, post-emergence broadleaf weeds, plant growth regulator in citrus
- Alternatives: Organic agriculture, Organic Lawn care
- Beyond Pesticides rating:
Health and Environmental Effects
- Cancer: Yes ()
- Endocrine Disruption: Probable ()
- Reproductive Effects: Yes ()
- Neurotoxicity: Yes ()
- Kidney/Liver Damage: Yes ()
- Sensitizer/ Irritant: Yes ()
- Birth/Developmental: Yes ()
- Detected in Groundwater: Yes ()
- Potential Leacher: Yes ()
- Toxic to Birds: Yes ()
- Toxic to Fish/Aquatic Organisms: Yes ()
- Toxic to Bees: Yes ()
Residential Uses as Found in the ManageSafe™ Database
- Regulatory Status:
- Supporting information:
- IARC Monographs evaluate DDT, lindane, and 2,4-D. (2015)
- 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-resistant crops and the potential for evolution of 2,4-D-resistant weeds. Egan JF, Maxwell BD, Mortensen DA, et al. 2011. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 108(11): E37.
- Cancer and pesticides: an overview and some results of the Italian multicenter case-control study on hematolymphopoietic malignancies
Miligi, L., et al. 2006. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
- Breast cancer risk in Hispanic agricultural workers in California
Mills, P.K. and Yang, R. 2005. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health.
- Lymphohematopoietic cancers in the United Farm Workers of America (UFW), 1988-2001. Mills PK, Yang R, Riordan D. 2005. Cancer Causes Control.
- Herbicide exposure and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish terriers, Glickman, et. al. 2004. Journal of the American Medical Association.
- Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and encodrine disruption. Garry, V.F., et al. 2001. Environ Health Pers.
- A Case–Control Study of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Exposure to Pesticides Journal of the American Cancer Society, 1999.
- Pesticides in Household Dust and Soil: Exposure Pathways for Children of Agricultural Families, Simcox, et. al. 1995.Environmental Health Perspectives.
- Pesticides and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Zahm SH and Blair A. 1992. Cancer Res.